Air: The Excellent Canopy by Frank Fahy

By Frank Fahy

We take it with no consideration, yet with out it we perish and if we proceed to abuse it, it might kill us in spite of everything. This interesting textual content offers an realizing and appreciation of the function that air performs in the environment and its value when it comes to human existence and expertise. aimed toward people who find themselves scientifically curious yet who've no professional education, it comprises no mathematical equations and depends the qualitative descriptions and analogies to give an explanation for the extra technical components of the textual content including uncomplicated domestic experiments to demonstrate more than a few air-based phenomena. Liberally illustrated with quite a number line drawings and pictures, it recommends extra interpreting in the event you are influenced to benefit extra. This ebook deals necessary historical past interpreting for either physics academics and scholars.

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This is known as boundary layer 'transition' into a 'turbulent' boundary layer. Fluid dynamicists characterise flows over solid bodies and within conduits in terms of a non-dimensional parameter called 'Reynolds Number', named after Osborne Reynolds who studied the transition from laminar to turbulent flow in pipes in the 1880s. 4 Aerodynamics and Flight 27 Free streaiT1 velocity ----------------~~ -----------------~ ------------------~ ----------------~~ Boundary layer ------------------~ ----------------~ velocities --------------~~ ------------~~ ~ ---{:::> I I I I I f f I f I I I I I Sur'face Fig.

In leaves these are called 'stomata' and in tree branches they are called 'lenticels'. As explained in the previous chapter, the evolution of strong, searching roots by primitive trees, together with the consequent destruction of rocks and the associated sequestration of carbon dioxide led to a great decline in the atmospheric content of this gas. Remarkably, this aided the development of large, flat plant leaves. Sunlight heats such leaves; their temperature is controlled by the emission of water vapour through their stomata.

The resulting distortion of shape passes from molecule to molecule across the ball in the form of a wave. The net result is that the ball moves away from the hand as if it were a single continuous mass. The acceleration of the ball produced by the hand is given by Newton's Second Law of Motion: the acceleration of a mass equals the force acting on it divided by the mass. 2 22 Air: the Excellent Canopy [A scientifically more useful statement of the law is based on the concept of 'momentum'. For a discrete mass this is the product of the mass and its velocity.

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