By Hanna Segal
Strains the improvement of Melanie Klein's rules inside a biographical framework, describing the significance of her paintings, and portraying her as a lady of heat and perception.
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Additional resources for Klein
Although she took from Ferenczi the concept of introjection, Abraham's work, particularly on melancholia, was the more important influence. She considered herself his pupil and her work a contribution and develop ment of Freud's and Abraham's. After Abraham's death, life in Berlin became difficult for Melanie Klein. Not only was the loss of Abraham and the interruption of her analysis a deep grief, but also, lacking his support, she found her work in Berlin under constant attack. Anna Freud had started work with children at about the same time as Melanie Klein, but their approach was different and there was considerable controversy and conflict between the two.
When the father is perceived more as a separate person, the child's phantasy creates what Klein has termed the combined parental figure. In this phantasy the father is no longer perceived as merely a penis incorporated by mother, hut both parents in intercourse are combined into one figure. This combination serves to deny their intercourse and yet the hatred of such a combination cannot be denied and the child's hatred of the parents' intercourse is projected on to this figure. I t becomes a hateful and terrify- Psychoanalysis of Children ing figure - the basis of phantasies of many-headed or many-legged monsters which enter into the child's nightmares and fears.
Conversely, in the little girl the oral Klein turning to the father's penis paves the way to genital receptivity, whilst incorporation and identification with the father's penis contributes to the homosexual trends. Children of both sexes go through the phase of an attack on mother's body and the incorporated penis and the anxieties of that position influence their further development. In the little girl, if the anxiety about her mother's body and her father's penis inside it is excessive, she may be unable to identify with mother in a sexual role.