By David A. Scott, Jerry Podany, Brian B. Considine
The 16 essays during this quantity replicate a variety of learn relating tools for metals conservation, really in recognize to historical and historical items. the diversity of concerns mentioned contains issues within the cleansing of historic bronze vessels the approaches interested in bronze casting, completing, patination, and corrosion experiences of producing suggestions of gold gadgets in historic African and medieval ecu metalworking innovations of mercury gilding within the 18th century an research of patina within the type of bronze surfaces from land and lake environments an exam of bronze gadgets from the Benin state, Nigeria the historical past of recovery of the Marcus Aurelius monument in Rome the corrosion of iron in structure and functions of radiographic tomography to the examine of steel items.
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Additional info for Ancient & Historic Metals Conservation and Scientific Research
FIGURE 9. Fields of stability 4), chalcocite, djurleite, and posnjakite (see Table 6). Three hypotheses may therefore be formulated: of the corrosion products identified on the bronze l. All corrosion products were formed simultaneously. This possibility can objects, above right (after Pourbaix 1977 and Garrels be excluded as the fields of stability for the copper sulfides and the basic and Christ 1965). copper carbonates and sulfates are too different (Fig. 9). FIGURE 10a, b. Chalcopyrite corrosion layer on a pin-needle showing (a) the apparent good condition of the underlying bronze metal, and (b) detail of chalcopyrite corrosion layer typical for a lake a patina.
The third layer is quite porous. The number and size of the pores increase toward the surface. After etching with alcoholic FeCl3 solution, one can clearly see the crystalline appearance of the structure of the corrosion layer on top of the corroded α-phase grains (Fig. 1c). The corrosion proceeds into the metal through the grains like a root. 7 Analysis showed the area represented in Figures 2a–d to be the same as that in Figure 1a. The results may be summarized as 37 SCHWEIZER TABLE 4. X-ray diffraction lines of corrosion products from bronzes from the site lake of Hauterive-Champréveyres, Switzerland, and of the minerals Sinnerite (Cu6 As4S9 ) and Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2 ).
5 mm, Fe radiation unfiltered, 30 kV, 14 mA, 15 thetic crystal. hours. Film Lab MAH No. 302. e b Natural History Museum, Geneva. 5 mmø, Same sample as noted above X-rayed by S. Graeser, Natural History Sample from Victoria Mine, Westphalia, obtained from J. Deferne, Museum, Basel. Fe radiation, 8 hours. Film Lab MAH, No. G 451p. Fe radiation unfiltered, 30 kV, 14 mA, 17 hours. Film Lab MAH c No. 427. Sinnerite sample from the Lengenbach mine near Binn in the Valais, Switzerland. X-rayed by S. Graeser, National History Museum, Basel.