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Extra info for Progress in Botany: Genetics Physiology Systematics Ecology
The demonstration of RT activity could indicate a mobile group-II intron if the activity can be assigned to a suitable ORF. The first RT activity in plant mitochondria was detected in potatoes (Moenne et al. 1996) and was assigned to the mat-r ORF encoded by a group-II intron in the nadl gene [for reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dehydrogenase subunit I; Begu et al. 1998]. This ORF lacks some essential features usually exhibited by functional RTs. First, the conserved YADD motif is changed to a YADN motif (Tyr-Ala-Asp-Asn).
First, the conserved YADD motif is changed to a YADN motif (Tyr-Ala-Asp-Asn). It is known that substitutions of the two asparagines within this motif abolish RT activity completely. Second, the expression of the mat-r ORF is uncertain, because the ORF lacks a proper translation-initiation signal. A missing start codon seems to be an attribute of all known mat-r ORFs in plant mitochondria, but the translation of none of them has been proven. Although the mat-r transcripts are extensively edited, improving the homology to fungal RT sequences, the expression of mat-r is still in question, because editing is known from putative pseudogenes (Aubert et aI.
After degradation of the intron RNA and synthesis of the sense strand, the homing event is completed. These last two steps are accomplished by DNA replication and repair enzymes provided by the host. This straightforward pathway can be found in the Lactococcus intron ItrB (Fig. 3A; Mills et al. 1997; Cousineau et al. 1998). In contrast, homing in yeast is accompanied by a co-conversion that is very efficient for upstream exon sequences, while downstream sequences are poorly co-converted (Lazowska et al.