Organic Fine Chemicals [Ref Doc on Best Avail Techniques for

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2: Number of enterprises and sales by employment size OFC manufacturers range in size from very small (<10 staff) to very large multinationals (>20000 staff), with typical manufacturing sites having between 150 and 250 staff. 2 Organic Fine Chemicals Chapter 1 It is a feature of the sector to complement manufacturing with special customer services such as synthesis, contract manufacture, research and screening and the supply of research and laboratory chemicals. g. ISO 9001, ISO 14001, EMAS and a “Responsible Care Programme” ability to perform a range of complex chemistries at scales from kilos to tonnes unique technology platforms and willingness to adopt new, proven technologies well supported multi-functional assets capable of operating to cGMP when required regulatory and analytical infrastructure fast-track development and manufacture strategic commitment to custom synthesis manufacture flexibility and responsiveness strong ability of innovation and links with universities and research organisations significant efforts to replace hazardous substances [99, D2 comments, 2005].

Typical of the OFC sector is the manufacture of products or intermediates for internal use, in addition to external sales. The global market has grown at around 4 % per year and is currently valued at around EUR 265000 million (USD 300000 million). g. pharmaceutical companies, consequently reducing the number of new chemical substances requiring contract manufacture continued shift of manufacturing activities to the Far East continued rationalisation of large multinationals, leading to more outsourcing of existing and new low volume substances increasing costs of regulation, affecting the cost base especially of smaller manufacturers.

6 Vacuum systems [9, Christ, 1999] Many processes in organic chemistry are operated under vacuum. A number of criteria influence the selection of a vacuum pump, such as the required pressure difference, volume flows, temperature, etc. The choice of the pump type is relevant also from the environmental point of view. 5 gives an overview to some pump types and the environmental issues. Pump type Medium Water Liquid ring vacuum pump Solvent Dry vacuum pump No medium, no lubrication Dry vacuum pump No medium, with lubrication Main environmental issues Water ring pumps cause relatively large amounts of waste waters streams.

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