Endophytes of Forest Trees: Biology and Applications by Christoph R. Grünig, Valentin Queloz, Thomas N. Sieber

By Christoph R. Grünig, Valentin Queloz, Thomas N. Sieber (auth.), Anna Maria Pirttilä, A. Carolin Frank (eds.)

Found in each plant species, the range of endophytic micro-organisms could be tremendous excessive inside various plant organs and tissue varieties. In bushes, their ecological roles with recognize to host tree can range from latent pathogens or saprophytes to impartial commensalists and mutualists. Given their excessive variety, and their bio-active nature, endophytes are presently being linked to a job in tree healthiness opposed to insect herbivores and fungal pathogens, in addition to bettering tree houses in phytoremediation. in the meantime there's expanding curiosity within the capability of a few tree endophytes as new resources of drug compounds.

The first booklet on tree endophytes in numerous years, and containing contributions from best authors within the box, this e-book presents a major reference textual content for pro researchers and complex students.

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In fact, strains isolated from different roots collected at the same grid point more often belong to the same individual than those from roots collected at different grid points (Gr¨unig et al. 2002b). 5 Genetic Diversity Among PAC Populations Several analysis frameworks are available to study the structure of genetic diversity among populations, yielding insights into the evolutionary processes acting on species. First, hierarchical structuring of diversity can be analyzed using molecular variance analysis (AMOVA) (Excoffier et al.

1999), ADZE (Szpiech et al. 2008) or GENEPOP (Rousset 2008), and some of them include rarefaction analyses, allowing to correct for uneven sampling sizes. P. s. and P. europaea differ in the extent and distribution of diversity in their genomes as indicated by differences in the number of alleles and Nei’s gene diversity at 12 microsatellite loci (Table 2). Whereas three highly polymorphic loci (mPF 138B, mPF 860B and mPF 142B) and no monomorphic loci were observed in P. , P. europaea possessed only one highly polymorphic locus (mPF 644) and 11 low polymorphic loci.

R. Gr¨unig et al. Summary P. s. Summary P. europaea P. s. P. 49 Table 3 Measures of gene diversity, genotypic diversity and allelic richness in populations of Phialocephala europaea and P. R. Gr¨unig et al. of the molecular diversity found within species across different spatial scales are computed. Second, the isolation-by-distance hypothesis can be tested for the species under study. The isolation-by-distance hypothesis predicts that populations that are separated by larger geographical distances are genetically more differentiated than closely located populations (Holsinger and Weir 2009).

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