Encyclopedia of Operations Research and Management Science by (auth.)

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As shown in chapter two, human knowledge and problem solving process do not fit this model. Firstly, people organize their knowledge in a separate entity (our brain) and access it to reason out specific problems. And secondly, the human problem solving process involves at least three types of knowledge: domain knowledge, heuristics, and problem solving strategy, organized on two or three levels, depending on the existence and use of meta knowledge or not. XPS follow this human model. They collect their "pieces" of knowledge in a separate entity, called knowledge base (KB), which is manipulated by a separate clearly identifiable reasoning component.

By diagnosing XPS weaknesses and deficiencies, the knowledge engineer can begin acquiring new knowledge, modeling it once again, and reevaluating the system. This leads to an incremental, evolutionary development with performance that first is typically away from human levels and then generally comes near to, and sometimes exceeds them. 4. It might be important to point out here one of the most significant aspects in this developing context. Knowledge engineers extract knowledge from experts and integrate it into an XPS.

For this reason, it is quite difficult to make changes in such KB as well as to localize desired information. Here, it should be clear that the above construct is closely linked with the operation of retrieving intentional knowledge from the KB. Nevertheless, this activity is not provided by KR schemes supporting rules but by the inference engine. Only in the last few years, did KR researches begin to realize that KB should not be seen simply as a passive repository of knowledge. , inference) became part of the operations provided by some KR schemes.

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