By Donald A. Seanor (Eds.)
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Additional resources for Electrical Properties of Polymers
In the case of liquids, a m a c r o s c o p i c m e a s u r e m e n t is a d e q u a t e b e c a u s e the mo lecular dimensions of the medium are approximately the same as those of the ion, and it is a d e q u a t e to a s s u m e that the matrix b e h a v e s as a hyd r o d y n a m i c continuum. In the case of polymers in the solid state, this is not a good assumption. There are holes in the matrix equivalent in size to the dimensions of the ions. Consequently, local density fluctuations can dominate ionic motion.
Chapman and Hall, London, 1951. 5 eV (Sharp, 1967). 6 eV a b o v e t h e ground state of solid poly-N-vinylcarbazole. 3 eV using gold electrodes. T h e suggested energy levels in poly-iV-vinylcarbazole are shown in Fig. 14. D. Steady-State Conduction Having introduced the c o n c e p t s of charge-carrier traps and barriers to injection, we can begin to discuss steady-state conduction. A s s u m e that the n u m b e r of charge carriers and t h e local electric field are functions of location in the sample and are represented by t h e t e r m s n(x) and E(x), w h e r e χ is the distance from a reference electrode.
J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1137. , Emerald, R. L . , and Mort, J. (1973). J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3490. Chiang, C. , Gau, S. C , Fincher, C. , Part, Y. , MacDiarmid, A . , and Heeger, A. J. (1978). Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 18. , and Barva, K. (1980). J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys. 13, L9. Crowley, J. , Wallace, R. Α . , and Bube, R. H. (1976). J. Polym. Sei. Polxm. Phvs. Ed. 14, 1769. 56 Donald Λ. Seanor Davies, D . K. (1969). Br. J. Appl. Phys. 2, 1533. Duke, C. B. (1978). Surf. Sei. 70, 674. Duke, C. B . , and Fabish, T.