Electrical Properties of Polymers by Donald A. Seanor (Eds.)

By Donald A. Seanor (Eds.)

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In the case of liquids, a m a c r o s c o p i c m e a s u r e m e n t is a d e q u a t e b e c a u s e the mo­ lecular dimensions of the medium are approximately the same as those of the ion, and it is a d e q u a t e to a s s u m e that the matrix b e h a v e s as a hyd r o d y n a m i c continuum. In the case of polymers in the solid state, this is not a good assumption. There are holes in the matrix equivalent in size to the dimensions of the ions. Consequently, local density fluctuations can dominate ionic motion.

Chapman and Hall, London, 1951. 5 eV (Sharp, 1967). 6 eV a b o v e t h e ground state of solid poly-N-vinylcarbazole. 3 eV using gold electrodes. T h e suggested energy levels in poly-iV-vinylcarbazole are shown in Fig. 14. D. Steady-State Conduction Having introduced the c o n c e p t s of charge-carrier traps and barriers to injection, we can begin to discuss steady-state conduction. A s s u m e that the n u m b e r of charge carriers and t h e local electric field are functions of location in the sample and are represented by t h e t e r m s n(x) and E(x), w h e r e χ is the distance from a reference electrode.

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