By Jennifer Michael Hecht
Within the culture of grand sweeping histories similar to From sunrise To Decadence, The constitution of clinical Revolutions, and A background of God, Hecht champions doubt and wondering as one of many nice and noble, if unheralded, highbrow traditions that distinguish the Western brain especially-from Socrates to Galileo and Darwin to Wittgenstein and Hawking. this can be an account of the world's maximum ‘intellectual virtuosos,' who're additionally humanity's maximum doubters and disbelievers, from the traditional Greek philosophers, Jesus, and the jap religions, to fashionable secular equivalents Marx, Freud and Darwin—and their makes an attempt to reconcile the seeming meaninglessness of the universe with the human want for meaning,
This amazing publication levels from the early Greeks, Hebrew figures resembling activity and Ecclesiastes, japanese severe knowledge, Roman stoicism, Jesus as a guy of doubt, Gnosticism and Christian mystics, medieval Islamic, Jewish and Christian skeptics, secularism, the increase of technological know-how, sleek and modern serious thinkers comparable to Schopenhauer, Darwin, Marx, Freud, Nietzsche, the existentialists.
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Additional resources for Doubt: A History: The Great Doubters and Their Legacy of Innovation from Socrates and Jesus to Thomas Jefferson and Emily Dickinson
All in all, the idea of religious memory nicely illuminates both the concern for the continuation of Christianity, as well as that of rooting Islam, as a religious tradition in Europe (see Hervieu-Léger 2000; Davie 2000). The continuity of religious memory As comprehensive meaning systems, historical religions such as Christianity and Islam, have been, and still are, used as a source of explanation of social reality, telling how things are, but also as an explanation for the social reality, stating how things should be.
Pdf. ] religion and multiculturalism 23 In fact one can go even further than this and look at the secularisation process as a particularly European phenomenon and hence something that is central to the identiﬁcation of being a European (see Davie 2000: 1). Following this line of thought, one could turn secularisation theories into conceptual lenses through which one would try to understand, not the global religiosity in general as secularisation theories often claim to do, but rather the changing religiosity of Europe, and Western Europe to be more precise.
The second part, consisting of Chapters Five, Six and Seven, inquires how Muslims in Europe have organised themselves as a religious community. With respect to this sort of institutional adaptation, it must be noted that it easily involves diﬀerent meanings for the host society and for Muslims, respectively. Thus, for the host society the main question is how far Muslims, as newcomers or as an established minority, are prepared to follow the rules, norms, and values prevalent in a wider society.