Divided Kingdom: Ireland 1630-1800 (Oxford History of Early by S.J. Connolly

By S.J. Connolly

For eire the 17th and eighteenth centuries have been an period marked by way of struggle, monetary transformation, and the making and remaking of identities. by means of the 1630s the period of wars of conquest appeared firmly long ago. however the British civil wars of the mid-seventeenth century fractured either Protestant and Catholic eire alongside traces outlined through various mixtures of non secular and political allegiance. Later, after 1688, eire grew to become the battlefield for what was once in a different way Britain's cold (and so wonderful) Revolution. The eighteenth century, in contrast, was once a interval of peace, allowing eire to emerge, first as a dynamic actor within the becoming Atlantic economic climate, then because the breadbasket for industrialising Britain. yet on the finish of the century, opposed to a heritage of foreign revolution, new kinds of non secular and political clash got here jointly to supply one other interval of multi-sided clash. The Act of Union, swiftly brought within the aftermath of civil battle, ensured that eire entered the 19th century nonetheless divided, yet now not a country.

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Sample text

Grants to both existing and new proprietors in the Connacht and other plantations were likewise to be in capite. In this case too the crown’s gain was to be at the expense of New English as well as older interests. One further intrusion on the New English interest was not Wentworth’s initiative. In 1630 the crown had commenced proceedings in Star Chamber against the Irish Society, the consortium of London companies that had taken responsibility for the plantation of County Londonderry. The charges were numerous: fraud in the negotiation of the patent, failure to provide glebe lands for the church, the unauthorized commercial exploitation of woodlands, neglect of building and other obligations in the towns of Coleraine and Derry, and the continued presence of native tenants on lands that should have been reserved for British settlers.

From there the crisis spread to England, where the king’s sudden need for financial and military backing provided his 26 The Crisis of Composite Monarchy subjects with the opportunity to press for redress of the many grievances arising out of eleven years of extra-parliamentary taxation and unpopular religious policies. ³⁹ Once the breakdown of political order had begun, however, the affairs of all three kingdoms became intimately linked. This was not simply a matter of events in adjacent territories influencing one another.

Against this ⁵¹ Clarke, ‘Patrick Darcy and the Relationship between Ireland and Britain’, 40. ⁵² Russell, Fall of the British Monarchies, 392.

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