Conscience: An Interdisciplinary View: Salzburg Colloquium by Lawrence Kohlberg (auth.), Gerhard Zecha, Paul Weingartner

By Lawrence Kohlberg (auth.), Gerhard Zecha, Paul Weingartner (eds.)

Value switch and uncertainty in regards to the validity of conventional ethical convictions are often saw whilst clinical re­ seek confronts us with new ethical difficulties or demanding situations the ethical accountability of the scientist. Which ethics is to be depended on? Which ideas are the main moderate, the main humane ones? For wish of a suitable resolution, ethical professionals of­ ten aspect to sense of right and wrong, the person moral sense, which appears to be like man's particular, without delay available and ultimate resource of ethical competition. yet what's intended through 'conscience'? there's not often a concept as generic and even as arguable as that of judgment of right and wrong. within the heritage of ethics we will be able to distinguish numerous traits within the interpretation of the idea that and serve as of sense of right and wrong. The Greeks used the notice O"uvEt81lm~ to indicate a type of 'accompa­ nying wisdom' that normally said negatively skilled habit. In Latin, the expression conscientia intended a understanding­ jointly pointing past the person recognition to the typical wisdom of alternative humans. within the Bible, particularly within the New testomony, O"uvEt81l0"t~ is used for the guiding con­ sciousness of the morality of one's personal action.

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Extra resources for Conscience: An Interdisciplinary View: Salzburg Colloquium on Ethics in the Sciences and Humanities

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And if so, what is, so to speak, a higher value and what is a lower value which we need as ordering principles? KOHLBERG: I'm not sure that the role-reversal is with the simply arbitrary other that in some sense it has to be any individual other or all the others who are involved in the particular situation. So that there would be some necessity of actually sympathetic or empathetic role-taking involved. 18 LAWRENCE KOHLBERG The next question, what is the hierarchy of values? It seems to me in principle to be given by the notion of a single general moral principle, which interpreted in light of this moral point of view; that is, it would be characteristic at the 5th Stage to have a number of discrete hierarchies of values: the easiest one to talk about is life and property.

Finally in terms of use of actual legal decisions, we did a little bit of that in this volume of mine The Philosophy of Moral Development: Capital punishment, for instance, where we discuss different jurisprudential opinions on capital punishment that we can represent with different stages (Kohlberg/Elfenbein 1981). ZECHA: I think I can understand why, say, Stage 3 is higher than Stage 2 or Stage 6 is higher than Stage 4 from a psychological point of view. But you also claimed that they are better in a moral sense: why is this so?

This is a more adequate equation. We say that each of us wants others to treat us as ends and not as a mere means. This is more or less the content of reversibility in the Golden Rule. SCHOLLER: I have four questions. 22 LAWRENCE KOHLBERG First, you said there is a relationship between legal development and the moral stages, but if we go back to legal anthropology then there is, I suppose, not a linear development, but there is a kind of co-existence of different phases. In archaic society you have Stages 1,2 and 3, but no 6.

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