Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry, Molecular by John M. Chalmers, Robert J. Meier

By John M. Chalmers, Robert J. Meier

Written by means of specialist members from the tutorial and commercial sectors, this booklet offers conventional and smooth methods to polymer characterization and research. The emphasis is on pragmatics, challenge fixing and estate choice; real-world functions supply a context for key strategies. The characterizations specialize in natural polymer and polymer product microstructure and composition.

  • Approaches molecular characterization and research of polymers from the perspective of problem-solving and polymer estate characterization, instead of from a strategy championing approach
  • Focuses on supplying a way to ascertaining the optimal strategy or technique(s) to unravel a problem/measure a estate, and thereby improve an analytical competence within the molecular characterization and research of real-world polymer products
  • Provides history on polymer chemistry and microstructure, discussions of polymer chain, morphology, degradation, and product failure and additive research, and considers the helping roles of modeling and high-throughput analysis

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Extra resources for Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry, Molecular Characterization and Analysis of Polymers

Sample text

In addition to biological reactions, there are two main mechanisms of building synthetic polymers from their monomers: addition (or chain) polymerisation and step polymerisation. Schematically, synthesizing a polymer can be compared to playing dominos. On the one hand, it can be done by aligning a long series of them on their smallest face, then, by a small push on the first one (initiation), inducing a concerted falling down (propagation). On the other hand, dominos can be arranged in long series by associating corresponding ends step by step, like functional molecules by reacting corresponding functions.

However, as such thicknesses are much smaller than extended-chain lengths, a model of ‘‘chain folding’’ was established for forming such polymer crystals (Figure 4). As a consequence of chain folding, besides the inclusion of chain ends, these ‘‘single crystals’’ exhibit at a minimum a certain amount of defects at their surface. This is a reason why polymers are never 100% crystalline. In polymers crystallised from the melt, lamellae were observed by electron microscopy, whose thickness are of the same order of magnitude as ‘‘single crystals’’ obtained from solution (Figure 5).

The lowest energy conformation of a linear molecule with more than four backbone atoms is always the planar or ‘‘trans’’ conformation (like the example in Figure 15A). Two other low-energy conformations are obtained by a clockwise or counter-clockwise rotation of the central bond of 1201 (Figure 15B). The two staggered conformations are said to be ‘‘gauche’’ and are skewed and non-planar. Energy differences between conformations remain, however low and, in most cases, less than the thermal energy, allowing almost free rotation around carbon–carbon single bonds at room temperature, hence, the average conformation of a polymer chain in a liquid (melt or solution) or amorphous state is a ‘‘random coil’’ (or ‘‘statistical coil’’).

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