By Adam Torok, Balazs Borsi, Andras Telcs
This ebook builds at the premise that the effectiveness of nationwide efforts to extend spending on R&D might be approximated via the competitiveness of that financial system in overseas markets. construction on a few latest ‘benchmarking’ reports that experience so far simply ranked nations in accordance both to their R&D signs, or their performances in innovation, this can be the 1st e-book to provide a synthesized evaluation of the R&D competitiveness of nationwide economies in accordance with either enter and output similar signs. numerous quantitative equipment are used to mix those lists with a large choice of R&D symptoms. The publication confirms one of many significant premises of the Lisbon method – that Europe is considerably lagging at the back of its in another country rivals in R&D.
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Additional info for Competitiveness In Research And Development: Comparisons And Performance
Innovation policy might include incentives to R&D as one of its key elements. In addition to that, its scope can comprise fields covered by regional policy or industrial policy. Innovation policy is, in practice, quite difficult to define and delineate due to its many possible overlaps with other policy fields. This may be the reason why usual R&D related policy analysis has a narrower focus, that is R&D policy itself. Innovation policy as such is relatively rarely elaborated, at least as far as it can be judged from the titles of policy documents.
The NISs of advanced economies are quite well known from NSB (2002) regarding the United States, and publications such as Wilson and Soutiaris (2002) on Germany, Lemola (2002) on Finland, Mustar and Larédo (2002) on France, Narula (2002) on Norway, Jiménez Contreras (2003) on Spain, Hayashi (2003) on Japan, and Balconi et al. (2004) on Italy. Cases from countries outside North America and Western Europe are less widely known, although Mani (2002) gave an excellent survey of innovation systems in several former and present catching-up economies such as Japan, Korea, Brazil, Israel, South Africa, Singapore and Malaysia.
It is highly likely that the development of the NIS concept benefited from the broad framework for innovation analysis provided by evolutionary economics. This framework was instrumental in establishing effective linkages between R&D and innovation analysis on the one hand and the analysis of the development of the capabilities, structures and institutions of national economies on the other (see Nelson, 1995 and 2004). An important contribution of the NIS concept to theoretical thinking on innovation is that the effort of innovative organizations themselves is not at all decisive in determining the final outcome of the process, and a favourable environment is essential for successful innovations.