By Professor Samuel Dales, Professor Beatriz G. T. Pogo (auth.)
This quantity, Biology of Poxviruses, marks our debut as editors of this popular sequence. We plan to proceed the culture of delivering a discussion board for exten sive, severe experiences of person virus teams, as exemplified by means of the current quantity. however the speed of discovery is accelerating so quickly that we suppose the necessity to provide an extra structure: volumes that comprise collections of shorter, topical experiences on a bunch of similar matters. Such collections may lower throughout con ventional obstacles among virus teams, dealing, for example, with a partic ular element of virus-cell interplay. Admittedly, this new layout stretches the time period "monograph" past the permitted definition, yet we think that we must always pay that rate to keep up the usefulness of the sequence as a medium of clinical conversation. every time attainable, we'll enlist the help of deputy editors to carry such col lections to fruition. As long ago, the editors and the writer will welcome feedback for themes and contributions.
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The long arrows indicate a region of lysis whereby the core(s) can be moved into the cytoplasmic matrix. The short arrows in A point toward m embrane segments of the phagocytic vacuole and virus envelope rema ining d eep in the cytoplasm after fusion and lysis have occurred. B The virion envelope became fused with the cell membrane before phagocytosis could occur. It should be noted that in each case the lateral bodies (L) are separated from the core (0) and remain attached to the envelope. A X 95,000; B X 128,000; 0 X 107,000.
1967), which was corroborated later (KATES, 1970; WOODSON, 1967). Subsequent detailed investigations demonstrated that transcription from the core involves the simultaneous initiation of about 50 to tOO RNA chains and their extrusion through the proteinaceous coat of the core by an ATP-dependent process (KATES and BEESON, 1970a, b); PAOLETTI and LIPINSKAS, 1978b). Since each mRNA chain has a stretch of 50 to 200 polyadenylate [poly(A)) residues covalently linked with it (KATES and BEESON, 1970b), it was initially presumed that poly(A) was the transcript of poly(dT) sequences in the vaccinia genome.
By direct visualization after spreading on protein films by the Kleinschmidt procedure or by physical-chemical determinations, it is evident that the genomes exist as double stranded linear DNA molecules about 45 to 60 [Lm long, (Fig. , 1978; ARIF, 1976; GESHELIX and BERNS, 1974). A presumed detection of single stranded DNA within the virion (PFAU and MOCREA, 1962a, b) has not been substantiated and this result could, conceivably, have been obtained artifactually as a consequence of the extraction method employed, which produces fragments of denatured DNA.