By Rosinger E.

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Condition 2. When one of the particles is subjected to A and the other to B, or one is subjected to B and the other to C, they will in a large number of experiments give the same result with a frequency of 3/4. Condition 3. When one of the particles is subjected to A and the other to C, then in a large number of experiments they will give the same result with a frequency 1/4. Now, the surprising fact is that no experiment in a classical setup in which the principle of locality holds can come anywhere near to such a behaviour.

Im , j1 , . . , jm ≤ n, with i1 = j1 , . . 9) || U − Bi1 ,j1 . . Bim ,jm || ≤ ǫ It is further known that a generic set of 2-qubit quantum gates B : C4 −→ C4 have the above universal approximation property. In other 37 Basics of Quantum Computation words, this property is valid for an open and dense subset of such quantum gates B : C4 −→ C4 . However, when one is given a specific 2-qubit quantum gate, it is not easy to check whether indeed it is universal in the above sense. Let us conclude with a related result, and its proof, which can offer certain additional specifics, Deutsch [1].

And strangely enough, that includes as well the case when two conscious participants, and not merely two physical entities would be involved. In such a case, when conscious participant are present, we shall see the experiments A, B and C as questions put to the two participants, while the results R and C will be seen as their respective answers. Such are indeed the wonders of entanglement and of certain EPR pairs that some of their performances, like for instance those which satisfy conditions 1, 2 and 3 above, cannot be reproduced in a classical context which obeys the locality principle, even if attempted by two conscious participants.